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UpToDate, 2014 (A.B. Middleman and K.A. Olson, A. English, Editor)
The concepts of informed consent and confidentiality are complex when the patient is an adolescent, particularly true when the needs and wishes of the adolescent conflict with the opinions and preferences of the parents. Clinicians who treat adolescents must be aware of the federal and state laws related to adolescent consent and confidentiality.
 
Guttmacher Institute, 2013 (R. Benson Gold)
Millions of Americans are expected to obtain health insurance coverage as a result of the ACA, including large numbers of young adults who can now remain covered as dependents under a parent’s policy until age 26. This means addressing the long-standing challenge of how to protect dependents’ confidentiality about sensitive health services is becoming increasingly important.
 
National Center for Youth Law, 2013 (R. Gudeman)
The ACA has the potential to increase adolescent access to critical care. However, confidentiality concerns may mean young people will not take full advantage of services available to them. When the patient is a dependent, a request for insurance reimbursement may trigger disclosure of confidential health information to the policyholder.
 
Guttmacher Institute, 2012 (A. English, R. Benson Gold, E. Nash, and J. Levine) 
This report reviews state-level legal requirements related to confidentiality in private insurance. It assesses state statutes and regulations that can have the effect of abrogating confidentiality through a number of different avenues and examines steps some states have taken to protect confidential access to care for individuals insured as dependents.
 
The Center for Adolescent Health & the Law, 2010 (A. English, L. Bass, A. Dame Boyle, and F. Eshragh)
This landmark publication provides detailed information about the laws in all 50 states and DC that allow minors to consent for their own health care. The 300 page monograph includes a general overview of how each state’s laws address minor consent and a specific summary, with citations, of each state’s relevant law. (The full volume costs $75; individual states cost $35. Print and electronic copies can be ordered from the Center for Adolescent Health & the Law.)
 
Guttmacher Institute, 2004 (A. English and C.A. Ford)
In August 2002, a new federal rule took effect that protects the privacy of individuals’ health information and medical records. The rule, which is based on requirements contained in the HIPAA, embodies important protections for minors, along with a significant degree of deference to other laws and to the judgment of health care providers.
 
Guttmacher Institute, 2003 (C. Dailard)
The notion that confidentiality is key to many teenagers ‘willingness to seek sensitive health services, such as family planning, is well established in law. At the federal level, both Medicaid and Title X of the Public Health Service Act guarantee confidentiality to teenagers seeking family planning services. Under numerous state laws, minors are entitled to consent on their own to a range of sensitive health services. 
 
National Center for Youth Law, 2003 (R. Gudeman)
Adolescents are more likely than adults to have their right to medical confidentiality violated by providers or insurers. New federal privacy rules obligate providers and insurers to better safeguard the confidentiality of information protected under state law. This article analyzes whether the new federal rules will help reduce violations of adolescent confidentiality.
 
American Academy of Pediatrics
This tip sheet from AAP’s Healthy Foster Care America initiative provides guidance on federal and state laws intended to protect the privacy of health care information. It covers federal medical privacy rules issues under the federal HIPAA regulations, state privacy laws, state minor consent laws, and the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA).

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