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Mental Health
Sexual and Reproductive Health
Substance Abuse


Electronic Health Records (EHRs) and Explanations of Benefits (EOBs)

 
Guttmacher Institute, 2015
Billing and claims processing procedures widely used in private health insurance routinely prevent anyone insured as a dependent on someone else’s policy from obtaining sensitive services confidentially. Several states have developed creative approaches to address challenges confidentiality concerns which satisfy the needs of insurers, protect policyholders from unexpected financial exposure and facilitate access to confidential care for all covered individuals.
 
Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine, 2014 (S. Hayden Gray, R.H. Pasternak, H.C. Gooding, K. Woodward, K. Hawkins, S. Sawyer, and A. Anoshiravani)
Use of EHRs can potentially improve health care accessibility, effectiveness, and safety but can create challenges for the ongoing protection of patient confidentiality and privacy. This policy statement affirms that the protection of adolescent confidentiality as dictated by applicable laws is a responsibility shared by EHR vendors, hospital and clinic administrators, clinicians, patients, and families.
 
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2014
Confidentiality concerns are heightened during adolescence and can be a critical barrier to adolescents in receiving appropriate health care. Health care providers caring for minors should be aware of federal and state laws that affect confidentiality. This Committee Opinion (No. 599) states that health care providers should be familiar with the regulations that apply to their practice. 
 
National Adolescent and Young Adult Health Information Center, 2014
This report highlights key issues with EOBs and sensitive health services, and discusses how these issues are impacted by the ACA. It explores a number of strategies to balance the need of confidentiality with patient communication and provides insights offered through interviews with experts on the subject.
 
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2012
As a part of the healthcare system, child and adolescent psychiatrists are increasingly utilizing this technology for documentation of care and sharing of information with other healthcare providers involved in the care of our patients. This policy statement covers the substantial benefits of health information technology in the practice of child psychiatry.
 
Guttmacher Institute, 2009 (R. Benson Gold)
The health insurance billing and claims processing procedures widely used today unintentionally but routinely violate this basic guarantee of confidentiality for anyone enrolled as a dependent on someone else’s policy. Although this may cause problems for any dependent seeking care, the issue may be especially acute for individuals seeking sensitive services.

Mental Health

 
Mental Health America, 2014
This position statement (No. 27) recommends that health care providers, consumers, families, and other caregivers become familiar with the guidance described in this position statement that clarifies the standards of confidentiality incorporated in HIPAA concerning mental health and substance use treatment. Advocates should ensure that state laws and local providers balance confidentiality interests with respect to the rights of minors.
 
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2012
This “Facts for Families” page contains information regarding confidential psychiatric care for youth. The information is also available as a printable PDF for clinicians to use with patients and their families.
 
Mental Health America, 2012
This position statement (No. 21) affirms the rights of persons with mental health and substance use conditions to preservation of liberty and personal autonomy, presumption of competency, and the protection of privacy. The document outlines specific components of rights related to privacy and information management.  
 
American Psychological Association, 2007 (S.H. Behnke)
This letter to the editor of the APA’s “Monitor on Psychology” brings together clinical, legal, and ethical perspectives on confidentiality offers both challenges and opportunities in the treatment of adolescents.
 
American Psychological Association, 2002 (S.H. Behnke and E. Warner)
In this issue, the APA Monitor on Psychology will features “Ethics Rounds,” in which APA’s Ethics Office answers questions about the ethical issues psychologists most commonly face regarding confidential care.
 

Sexual and Reproductive Health

 
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2014
The initial visit for screening and the provision of reproductive preventive health care services and guidance should take place between the ages of 13 years and 15 years. This Committee Opinion (No. 598) provides guidance on the scope of the initial visit and confidentiality.
 
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013
In this infographic, the CDC presents recommendations to help clinicians provide adolescent patients with confidential, private, respectful and culturally competent services, convenient office hours, and complete information. (See section on confidentiality.)
 
Physicians for Reproductive Health, 2012
A part of the Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health Education Program (ARSHEP), this training module examines the issues surrounding a minor’s ability to access confidential reproductive health services. The ARSHEP is intended to prepare a select group of physicians to give free educational sessions to other providers about the best practices for adolescent reproductive and sexual health care.
 
American Medical Association Journal of Ethics, 2012 (Santos, X. M.)
This clinical case study uses an example story to explore the ethics of the provision of confidential healthcare to sexually active adolescents and how to engage with parents.
 
Physicians for Reproductive Health, 2011
The AMA, the SAHM, the APHA, the ACOG, the AAFP, and the AAP have all reached a consensus that minors should not be compelled or required to involve their parents in their decisions to obtain abortions, although they should be encouraged to discuss their pregnancies with their parents and other responsible adults. 
 
American Public Health Association, 2011
This policy (No. 20115) does not support mandatory parental involvement in abortion decision making for adolescents and suggest that pregnant minors should be encouraged but not legally required to involve parents. This policy also urges advocacy group, as well as policymakers, to support measures to uphold minors’ access to confidential abortion services.
 
Physicians for Reproductive Health, 2010
This resource summarize the complex laws surrounding the provision of confidential reproductive health services to minors in 13 states and is available as a PDF for download. 
 
Center for Adolescent Health & the Law, 2007
This set of resources includes a report on how teens access to confidential services is affected when a state’s laws are unclear or not well understood as well as a comprehensive series of brochures. These brochures offer guidance to health care providers, teens, and parents of teens about ways they can deliver, receive, and support adolescents’ access to confidential contraceptive services. 
 
Guttmacher Institute, 2005 (C. Dailard and C. Turner Richardson)
Public policy has long protected the right of minors to receive contraceptive services confidentially; however, the same is not true for abortion. Although the public remains ambivalent, professional organizations familiar with the scientific evidence uniformly support the provision of reproductive health care to minors on a confidential basis. 
 
Guttmacher Institute, 2004 (R.K. Jones and H. Boonstra)
Legislative efforts to implement mandated parental involvement for minor adolescents seeking family planning services threaten the rights of adolescents younger than 18 to access reproductive health care. Research that will help clinics implement and improve efforts to encourage voluntary parental involvement is urgently needed.
 
American Public Health Association, 1990
This policy (No. 9001) outlines support for confidential reproductive health care services for adolescents and policies that enable such care.

Substance Abuse

 
Mental Health America, 2014
This position statement (No. 27) recommends that health care providers, consumers, families, and other caregivers become familiar with the guidance described in this position statement that clarifies the standards of confidentiality incorporated in HIPAA concerning mental health and substance use treatment. Advocates should ensure that state laws and local providers balance confidentiality interests with respect to the rights of minors.
 
American Psychiatric Association, 2012 (W.H. Clark)
In this webinar, participants will learn how confidentiality applies to privacy of behavioral health information and how health information technology can be a benefit to treatment providers, rather than a burden. 
 
Mental Health America, 2012
This position statement (No. 21) affirms the rights of persons with mental health and substance use conditions to preservation of liberty and personal autonomy, presumption of competency, and the protection of privacy. The document outlines specific components of rights related to privacy and information management.  
 
American Academy of Pediatrics, 2011
As a component of comprehensive pediatric care, adolescents should receive appropriate guidance regarding substance use during routine clinical care. This statement addresses practitioner challenges posed by the spectrum of pediatric substance use and presents an algorithm-based approach assist pediatricians, which includes guidance regarding confidentiality.
 
American Academy of Pediatrics, 2010
Pediatricians should be knowledgeable about substance abuse to be able to recognize risk factors for alcohol and other substance abuse among youth, screen for use, provide appropriate brief interventions, and refer to treatment. This policy statement affirms the importance of appropriate confidentiality assurances when screening for alcohol and drug use in adolescents and young adults.
 
American Medical Association Journal of Ethics, 2005
Privacy is essential to adolescents who seek health care. In the United States, confidentiality, particularly with respect to sensitive issues such as reproductive health care and substance abuse, has become a well-established tradition, grounded in law, ethics, and clinical practice.
 

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