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Sedlander, E., Brindis, C. D., Bausch, S. H., and Tebb, K. P., 2015
The Affordable Care Act has expanded the enrollment of young people in insurance plans and aims to increase access to preventive health services. For adolescents and young adults to fully utilize these services, access to confidential care is critical, especially for sensitive services, like sexual and reproductive health care. This commentary is based on a qualitative study that identified policy options aimed at reconciling confidentiality protections and EOBs. (Full text may require subscription.)
Gilbert, A. L., Rickert, V. I., and Aalsma, M. C., 2014 
This study, a secondary analysis of nationally representative online survey data collected from adolescents aged 13–17 years and parents, found that approximately half of both samples reported provision of confidential consultation. The study found that confidential consultation significantly impacts the number and subject matter of health topics discussed. A split-visit confidentiality model for adolescent preventive care visits may result in clinical conversations that address more topics. (Full text may require subscription.)
Sasse, R. A., Aroni, R. A., Sawyer, S. M., and Duncan, R. E., 2012
This qualitative study investigated the opinions of parents about confidential care for adolescents. Parents demonstrated a wide variety of opinions, with several expressing concern about not being involved in their children’s care. In addition, parental desires were not always in accordance with current guidance provided to health professionals. (Full text may require subscription.)
Duncan, R. E., Vandeleur, M., Derks, A., and Sawyer, S., 2011
This study documented parental views regarding confidentiality with adolescents and found that parental views concerning confidentiality are complex and conflicting and differ from current guidance provided to health professionals. Ensuring that parents support the notion of confidential care for their children is a challenging yet vital task for health professionals. (Full text may require subscription.)
Tebb, K., 2011
To support the positive influence families can have on the health of their adolescent children, clinical guidelines also recommend that clinicians educate parents about the need for confidentiality and encourage communication between adolescents and their families. Given the complexity of ensuring that adolescents receive high quality care, the provision of confidentiality becomes a dual and often conflicting responsibility for clinicians.
English, A. and Ford, C., 2007
Broad agreement exists that adolescents who are depressed or sexually experienced need health care because evidence-based management can improve their health outcomes. Many also agree that adolescents can benefit from preventive health services. The challenge is to assure that adolescents have access to the health care they need and that the care they receive is of high quality.
Lehrer, J., Pantell, R., Tebb, K. and Shafer, M., 2007
The population of U.S. adolescents who forgo health care due to confidentiality concern is particularly vulnerable and in need of health care services. Adolescents who report health risk behaviors, psychological distress and/or unsatisfactory communication with parents have an increased likelihood of citing confidentiality concern as a reason for forgone health care, as compared with adolescents who do not report these factors. 
Lerand, S. J., Ireland, M., and Boutelle, K., 2007
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether confidential services impact adolescent’s communication with parents about their health. Obtaining confidential services was not a barrier to discussion with parents about clinic visit, reasons for coming to clinic, or telling their parent if they had a serious health care problem. Clinicians should continue to advocate for confidential services while encouraging open communication between adolescents and their parents. (Full text may require subscription.)
Spear, S. and English A., 2007
In spite of broad consistency among health care professional guidelines, research findings, and legal protections, the debates about confidential health services for adolescents continue. Advocates on both sides—proponents of confidential care for adolescents and supporters of mandated parental involvement—both claim the high ground but rarely find common ground. Instead, attention needs to focus on the ways in which the interests of adolescents, parents, health care providers, and society coincide rather than conflict. (Full text may require subscription.)
Advocates for Youth, 1997
Confidential health services are essential in promoting teens’ health. Adolescents are at a critical stage of development and are beginning to establish their own identity and autonomy. The health care provider’s duty of confidentiality becomes complicated when the interests of an adolescent’s parents or guardian must be factored into the provider-patient relationship. 

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